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The German Boxer Dog is a working and companion dog breed of the hound type. Of medium size, it has been used as a guard dog for years. It is a cross between a Brabant Bullenbeisser and a Bulldog of yesteryear, two breeds that have now disappeared.

He first appeared in Munich (Germany) in a kennel called “Von Dom”. During the First and Second World Wars, the Boxer was used as a messenger dog: it carried communication cables and pulled the bodies of wounded soldiers back to the battlefield.

Today, it is still used as a police dog in some countries of the world.

He is ranked 9th among the most popular breeds of the FCI and AKC. Also, he has been involved in the birth of several other breeds of dogs, such as the Cordoba fighting dog, the Guatemalan Great Dane, the bull boxer, and the boxer Akita Inu.

In this sheet, we will tell you everything about the Boxer, from his character, his diet, through his training and education. In summary, here is the description of the Boxer dog breed.

Origin of the boxer
The oldest ancestors of the boxer are two German hounds: the Bullenbeisser and the barenbeisser. Nevertheless, our boxers hold more of the smaller Bullenbeisser: the Bullenbeisser Brabant.

These ancestors of the boxer were hunting dogs that helped hunters by chasing and catching prey. They were resistant, strong, with a great impulse. Sometime later, the boxer’s ancestors were crossed with the English bulldog and began to be used to control herds of cattle, becoming what are colloquially known as “sheepdogs”. As they were easy to train, they were used in circuses and to participate in shows.

Three Germans, Roberth, Konig, and Hopner decided to establish a breed standard in 1894. The following year, they exhibited it at the Munich dog show. In 1896, they founded the first Boxer Club. In 1904, the first dog card of the boxer dog was registered, defining the breed standard according to the conditions that the boxer had to meet, such as being a working dog, for example.

The origin of the name is still unclear, some hypotheses have been put forward to clarify the origin of the name “boxer” :

-Some authors have suggested that the name “boxer” came from the blows that this dog gave with his paws when he was fighting, like a boxer in the ring. This is certainly an attitude peculiar to this breed since their physiognomy pushes them to use their hind legs a lot. However, this hypothesis is unlikely since the strong German nationalism of the time would not have allowed an English name to be given to a 100% German dog.
-Another hypothesis: the word “boxer” would come from “boxl” which was the common name for Brabant Bullenbeisser. This idea is likely to close to reality.
Physical characteristics of the boxer
The boxer is a medium-sized dog. He has a large and heavy head and a powerful mandible. His muzzle is small and has a kind of mask covering it. Before people used to cut off their ears and tail, today this practice is forbidden and most breeders fight against it.

His blow is strong, rounded, and muscular, just like his hind legs. Its chest is broad and gives it a great presence. The hair is generally short, glossy, and soft. The colors of the boxer vary from brown to black, including the tiger. Some are sometimes spotted and others are all white (albino). The latter, although existing, are not accepted by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale.

The height at the withers of the males varies between 57 and 63cm. For females, the height at the withers is between 53 and 59 cm. The average weight of adult males is around 30kg, while females generally weigh 25kg.

Characteristics of the boxer
The good sense of smell of the boxers and their great courage in an emergency make them perfect “fire dogs”. His qualities are numerous and he is also loyal, vigilant, and active.

It is a docile dog, loyal to its family and incapable of harming them. He is sometimes overprotective if he notices aggressive behavior in the surroundings. They have great respect for their owners and are patient with children. The Boxer is a territorial and dominant dog that alerts on the presence of intruders.

He is a very curious dog who knows how to create a very emotional bond with his masters that he will never leave and that he will try never to make them angry. It is necessary to socialize him properly from an early age so that his integration and development with humans and dogs is optimal. He can be a little rough when he plays, without any bad intentions nevertheless.

The boxer is an excellent therapy dog since he has real qualities such as empathy, good relations to the environment, disinhibition, spontaneity, and the fact that his physical contact reduces stress.

Boxers have excellent relationships with children, they are known for their patience and willingness to play with the smallest ones in the house.

As far as relationships with other dogs are concerned, when he is not sufficiently socialized and not sterilized, he can be dominant (especially with other males), although generally he behaves very well with other animals and interacts with them without any problems, always looking for play.
Boxer Care
The boxer needs two to three walks a day in addition to physical exercise. He will exercise by running, picking up objects that make noises, developing his muscles. Their diet must be controlled and adequate so that they do not become overweight or anorexic.

It is essential to stimulate him mentally and physically so that he is fully happy. The well-socialized boxer tends to make friends easily with other animals and loves nature and sniffing plants and other objects. He can adapt to life in an apartment, just like in a house, if he is out regularly, of course.

The boxer will appreciate it if you take care of his claws and clean his eyes and chops. Find out how to take care of your boxer’s hair in this article. You will need to bath him once a month. Beware of baths for the little ones, you must be careful not to damage or eliminate the natural protection of his skin.

Boxer education
He is ranked 48th on the list of the most intelligent dogs, but despite this, thanks to the bond he creates with his masters, he will be able to respond actively to games and orders, although he will certainly need more time than other breeds. During his training, it is imperative to use positive reinforcement with dog treats, they will increase his interest in addition to strengthening the bonds between you.

The boxer can learn a multitude of commands, such as sit, paw, stretch, turn, bring toys, don’t move. It is a very obedient dog. Moreover, he will love to feel useful by doing “BA” inside the house such as warning of the coming or approach of strangers or protecting the smallest in the house by showing great courage in all circumstances.

Boxer Health
You must be careful with extreme heat and exercise because sometimes they don’t breathe properly and can quickly get heatstroke. Let’s not forget that this is a molluscoid.

Although the life expectancy of a boxer is around 10 years, a happy and well-treated boxer can live between 13 and 15 years. This breed is prone to cancer and, to a lesser extent, heart disease and epilepsy. Also, watch out for food allergies.

Their skin is delicate and if they don’t have a comfortable bed or if they are forced to spend a lot of time outside, they may suffer from calluses on their elbows. This is a dog that should have a resting area inside the house.

* He’s very sensitive to the barking of other dogs.
*The boxer never gives up during a fight, he’s very brave.
*The boxer is not generally considered a *dangerous breed of dog, nevertheless there are countries where this is the case. Inform yourself before you travel with him.
*Patient, sociable and well-balanced, he loves to play and has a lot of fun with children.
*He is a very clean dog that will take time to clean himself.
*Very good guard dog.

Dog found: what to do?



The abandonment of pets is a sad and lamentable phenomenon in our country. The main victims of this cowardice are dogs and cats. With an average of 100,000 animals abandoned every year, France holds the sad European record for the country that treats its pets the worst.

There is not just one answer to the question; “I have found a dog, what should I do?”, because it all depends on the dog’s situation, its state of health, and many other factors.

Dog found: what to do?
If you find a dog, you have to:

Approach him gently, if he becomes aggressive, contact the authorities directly.
-Check to see if he has a medal or a chip.
-If he has one, take him to the vet to read it.
-If he doesn’t have one, contact the animal pound, the police, or ICAD.
-How do I help an abandoned dog?

The first thing you need to understand if you have found an abandoned or lost dog is that it will probably be scared to death. You must take certain precautions and under no circumstances should you approach him in an invasive manner, because if he has already had a traumatic experience, he may react unpredictably.

It is important to point out that it is possible to find an abandoned dog on the road or at a petrol station, but in more extreme cases it is also possible to find an abandoned dog in a house without people living there.

How do I approach an abandoned dog?
In the following, we will explain the right way to approach an unknown dog. Remember that you should not force him to do something he doesn’t want to do unless he is in imminent danger, as the goal is to gain his trust and prevent him from running away.

1-Start by approaching the dog from the side, never from the front, while you talk to him in a quiet, high-pitched, pleasant voice. You can say words like “my beautiful” or “good dog” to make him see you as something positive.
2- When you are at a certain distance from him, bend your knees a little, bend your knees, and extend the palm of your hand so that he can come to sniff you. Avoid making sudden movements, as you may frighten him.
3-Don’t stare at him and don’t approach him directly, as he may misinterpret your approach.
4-If you have food, try to attract him by scattering it on the ground, this technique will allow you to capture his attention, create a positive environment, and make him trust you.

Abandoned dog approaches
If your dog has approached you voluntarily, you can take the opportunity to see if he has a collar and an identification tag, on which the phone numbers of his guardians will be noted. If his coat is in good condition, there’s a good chance he belongs to someone, so you can try taking him to the vet to have his chip read. This procedure will be performed free of charge by all vets.

If it is an abandoned dog with a chip, you or the vet clinic can try to contact the family. It is important to specify that in some cases the chip has not been updated and does not have the current information from the guardian. If it is an abandoned dog without a microchip, you can go directly to the next box.

Abandoned dog refuses to approach
If the dog is suspicious, aggressive, frightened, or behaving abnormally, do not try to approach. In the next box, we explain where you should call. Remember that you should always act calmly and patiently.

Who do you call when you find a dog?

Many people tend to contact a shelter directly to leave the dog abandoned, however, this is not the best solution.

If you have found an abandoned dog, you must contact the authorities explaining the situation, the exact location where you found the dog and you must provide all the information they will ask for:

Contact the animal pound nearest you.

Adopting an abandoned dog
Even if it’s a nice feeling, taking over an animal you’ve just found is illegal… You will first have to ask your mayor’s permission to adopt this abandoned dog. Once 8 days have passed, and if you have no news from the animal’s guardian, you will have to give the animal to a refuge or a SPA.

Don’t forget that if you declare the animal abandoned in your name, the former guardians can file a complaint against you for theft.

What do I do if I see someone abandoning an animal?

In France, abandoning an animal is forbidden by law. Abandoning an animal is considered a serious offense punishable by 2 years imprisonment and a fine of 30,000 euros.

But, how can we know if it is a case of abandonment or loss? If you see that someone is leaving their dog or cat on the side of the road, you will have to :

Contact the authorities as explained above.
Contact animal organizations such as 30 million friends.
Gather all the evidence you can get, film, take pictures, etc….
Write a dated statement describing the facts and the location. Don’t forget that everything you do must always remain within the framework of legality.


This article is purely informative, we do not have the expertise to prescribe veterinary treatments or make any diagnosis. We invite you to bring your animal to the veterinarian if it presents the symptoms of a fever or a disease.

My cat steals food – Why and what to do?



Imagine, it’s late at night. You get up half asleep with a sudden urge to nibble something. Fancy! You remember that just the day before you left a dish in the kitchen with leftover ham. You go into the kitchen, turn on the light and… What do you see? Your cat, caught red-handed, hand in the bag (or rather paws in the dish)!

Have you ever caught your cat climbing on the kitchen counter trying to steal an unprotected piece of food, or about to climb on the table to steal food from your plate? If the answer is yes, you are dealing with a cat thief! Don’t panic, we will explain the possible reasons why your cat is stealing food and how to correct this rather inappropriate behavior.

The education of a cat from a very young age is essential to make your pet understand what it can or cannot do and how it should behave and live with its human family. But there are times when animals still learn and adopt behaviors that are undesirable and embarrassing to us. In this article, “My cat steals food – Why and what to do about it? “you’ll find out what factors may have encouraged this behavior in your cat and how to re-educate a cat that steals so that it gives up this bad habit. Are you ready?

Why is my cat stealing the food?

The fact that your cat takes advantage of the slightest oversight to steal a piece of food that you have left unprotected on the kitchen counter, or that it climbs up on the table when you are eating to beg and/or steal food from you is a very annoying situation, but why do cats steal food?

To find the answer to this question, it is necessary to review our pet’s behavior and the habits it has acquired towards us, its guardian(s). Maybe the problem started with us, or maybe not, but what is certain is that it is a behavior that must be stopped and corrected as soon as possible, because it can get worse if we neglect it, or if, for example, the cat unintentionally ingests food that is toxic to its body.

We will now review the possible reasons why a cat steals food!

The cat doesn’t like its food

One of the main reasons cats steal food is because they don’t like their food, i.e. the food or wet food they have is not to their liking or does not completely satisfy them, so they steal food where and when they can.

Remember that cats are strictly carnivorous animals, so it is recommended that they are fed food containing mainly meat and not mixed with other food products such as refined flours, cereals, etc. If you think that the food you are giving your cat is not the most appropriate and you notice that he does not like it because he leaves it and/or does not eat it well, the best thing to do is to change brands, buy better quality food and try it until you get the best food for your cat, or even better, you can try to make your homemade cat food!

Your cat may also enjoy the most food you give her, but she may not eat it because it is too soft. After all, it sits all day in her food tray. Cats are very sybaritic animals and will not eat everything you feed them if it is not to their liking. In this case, the solution is therefore very simple: just serve him the amount of food he needs (according to his age and weight), once he has eaten, take it away. This way, there will be no food left out in the open and it will not soften.

In the same way, we could also think that our cat is not eating his food, not because it is softened or because we have not found his perfect food, but because he likes the food from our plate on the table better. But the truth is that this is not the case. There is nothing that cats like more than food that is specially designed for them!

The cat has a bad habit
If you’ve already found the best food, dry or wet, for your cat and still steal food, it’s possible that the problem goes deeper and is a bad habit that has developed over time.

It’s possible that at some point in her life, our kitten may have climbed up on the table while we were eating and been given a small piece of the steak or tuna we were eating. At that moment, the bad habit started to get stronger, as the cat understood that it was normal to eat the food from our plate and even more so if we offered it to her. If this situation has been repeated more than once in time, it is very logical that the cat steals the food in the kitchen or on the table even if we are not sitting or present, because for him it is a learned behavior.

The solution to ending a bad habit is to create a new one, that’s why we will explain in the next section how to correct a cat thief.

How do you correct a cat that flies?

The truth is that it’s not easy to teach an animal a new habit, let alone a cat because we all know how special they are. So the ideal is always to educate them from an early age, because the sooner they learn, the better, and also to have a lot of patience with them. But if your cat is an adult and steals food, don’t worry, there is still hope!

First of all, we must be aware and help him to eradicate this bad habit by avoiding leaving food unprotected on the table or in the kitchen (even if it is leftovers) and also by not offering him any kind of food with our hands while we eat.

Likewise, if for some reason we are not attentive and we see that the cat sneaks in to steal food that we have forgotten to keep or that it climbs to the table with this intention, what we must do is to tell it “NO” firmly and serenely, and keep it away from that place by taking it in our arms and not letting it in until there is food available so that the cat will gradually understand that it cannot behave like this.

Another way to make the cat who steals understand that he cannot continue like this is to reinforce his behavior when he eats his own food in his corner. Once he has finished eating, and not before (because it is better not to interrupt him when he does something positive), he can be rewarded for this good behavior by stroking him, playing with him or giving him cat treats. It is obvious that the food we give him must be healthy and as appetizing as possible for our animal, so the chances of him stealing food will be less and less.

We can also wet him lightly, and above all without violence, with a water spray every time he intends to steal food. The water jets are something that usually bothers cats a lot and if every time they want to steal food we spray them with a good jet of water, little by little the cat will understand by instinct that he must not go near the food that is not his.

What does the dolphin eat?



Dolphins are considered to be one of the most intelligent animals in the world. They are odontocete cetacean mammals (a subdivision of the suborder Cetacea), in which, on the one hand, we find freshwater dolphins and, on the other, marine dolphins. These aquatic mammals are recognizable by the shape of their bodies as well as by the shape of their heads. In the areas where they live, it is common to see them out of the water jumping over the waves. These animals are carnivorous and have different hunting tactics, another characteristic that makes them wonderful creatures.

Dolphin feeding

Here, in a nutshell, is what a dolphin eats:

-Marine Turtles
-Some crabs

Are dolphins carnivorous?
Dolphins are cetacean mammals, meaning they are aquatic, marine or freshwater species. When they are just born, like the rest of the mammals, they feed on their mother’s milk, which provides them with all the nutrients they need. Around a year and a half, they gradually start eating other types of food until they reach adulthood. Once they reach this stage, they are completely independent and self-sufficient and can begin to hunt their prey on their own.

Once they are adults, their diet is exclusively carnivorous. Although they have teeth (the number of teeth can vary from 50 to 100 depending on the species), dolphins do not chew their food, except that they gobble it up entirely, using only their teeth to tear the skin of their prey. Dolphins are gregarious animals, which gives them a distinct advantage when hunting and capturing their daily bread.

What does a dolphin eat?

Generally, dolphins first attack the head of their prey because, in the case of fish, some studies say that this behavior allows dolphins to keep their bones and fins back, which allows them to handle them better and not hurt themselves. Larger dolphins may end up eating large prey that can weigh up to 5 kg, while smaller dolphins are content with smaller prey. Here are some of the animals that make up a dolphin’s diet:

-Marine Turtles

As for his daily needs, they will vary according to the type of prey he eats, as each type of fish will provide him with more or fewer nutrients and energy. Some studies suggest that an adult dolphin needs to consume about 1/3 of its body weight daily.

Like many other animals, dolphins migrate in search of food because if they stay too long in the same place they deplete the natural resources, so they prefer to leave and come back.

In general, the fish they consume the most are small, as well as squid and crustaceans that allow them to digest as quickly as possible. Other fish that dolphins eat are :

-Some crabs

How do you hunt dolphins?

Now that you know what the dolphin eats, wouldn’t you like to know how it hunts?

Dolphins can emit sound waves that allow them to sense the location of their prey. These waves act like a sonar that allows them to know the exact position of their food. This technique is called echolocation and is also used by other animals.

Dolphins can also use their swimming speed to form U-shaped eddies in which their prey will be enclosed. This technique is called grazing and they do it in groups, and as soon as their prey is trapped, they take turns eating.

Dolphins can work very well in groups because their way of communicating is just as incredible.

Stunning their prey
According to some researchers, dolphins are also able to stun their potential prey with sounds or noises, which greatly facilitates their capture.

Dolphins can also feed on fish that are trapped in fishing nets.

Another technique, used by bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), for example, is to push schools of fish to shallow areas so that they can be caught in fishermen’s nets. This technique is known as aqua-planning. Here is a clear case of cooperation because it is a collaboration between fishermen and dolphins: the fishermen let the dolphins feed on the captured fish until they swim away, after which the fishermen keep the rest of the catch.

Mud curtain
Another method is the one known as the “mud curtain”: dolphins pull their prey into shallow water and towards the shore to lift the mud to create a kind of curtain that prevents them from moving or getting out easily, which is the moment the dolphins choose to hunt them.

Dolphin hunting techniques are extremely interesting because they can catch their prey up to a depth of 100 meters. Also, they use echolocation to orient themselves in depths where sunlight is unknown, which is so effective that even blind species, such as the Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica), are formidable hunters. This mechanism also allows them to detect the size of their prey.

What’s a cat thinking?



Do you share your house with a cat? The behavior of these domestic felines has probably surprised you on several occasions, because one of the main characteristics of this animal is its independent character, which does not mean that it is not affectionate, although it is, of course, completely different from dogs.

Surveys carried out so far to study the behavior, communication and thinking of animals have yielded surprising results, especially those devoted to the approach to feline thinking and behavior of cats.

Do cats have a conscience?

Few animals need to have as much control over their environment as cats do. That’s why cats are the animals most subject to stress and the dangerous consequences of this state when it extends over time.

But how can such a sensitive animal ignore its own existence? Well, the truth is that this is not exactly the case. What happens is that scientific studies of consciousness in animals mainly use a mirror to observe reactions and determine the degree of consciousness, and the cat does not react.

However, cat lovers argue (and this seems very reasonable) that this lack of reaction is due to the fact that cats do not perceive any scent in the mirror and therefore nothing attracts them sufficiently to approach their reflection and interact with it.

Cats don’t see us as humans

Biologist Dr. John Bradshaw, from the University of Bristol, has been studying cats for 30 years and the results of his various investigations are surprising since he has determined that cats do not perceive us as humans, nor as masters, but as giant versions of themselves.

In this sense, cats see us as just another cat with whom they can or cannot socialize, depending on the moment, their interests and appetites, but in no case do they believe that we are a species that can manage to dominate them.

This characteristic is obvious if we compare cats to dogs, since dogs do not interact with humans in the same way as they do with other dogs, on the other hand, cats do not modify their behavior when they are facing a human.

Cats are not domesticated animals.
It is obvious that a cat can be trained to know what it cannot do with its human family and, like a dog, reacts well to positive reinforcement, but this should not be confused with a domestication process.

Experts believe that the domestication of the first dogs may date back 32,000 years, while cats began their relationship with humans about 9,000 years ago.

The important thing is to understand that during those 9,000 years, cats did not allow themselves to be domesticated, but learned to coexist with humans in order to enjoy all the collateral benefits that we, the “giant cats”, can provide them with, such as food, water and a comfortable resting environment.

Cats are the ones who train their guardians.
Cats are extremely intelligent animals, so much so that they are able to “train” us without our even noticing.

The cat’s senses are constantly observing humans, seeing them simply as giant cats. They know, for example, that when they purr, it is very possible to awaken our protective instincts, which most of the time ends with a reward in the form of food, so they do not doubt to use the purr as a means of manipulation.

They also know that by omitting certain noises, we go looking for them or, on the contrary, we leave the room where they are, and it is by continuous observation towards its human family that the cat adapts our responses to its needs.

But that’s not all, cats can also feel protective instincts towards us… Has your cat ever left you a small prey in the doorway? He does this because, although he sees you as a giant cat, he also sees you as a clumsy cat who may have difficulty obtaining food, and, in a very endearing way, he then decides to help you with this important task.

The cat considers that he has to train you, in a certain way because, as we mentioned, he thinks you are clumsy (not weak or inferior), it is also for this reason that your cat rubs against you, marking you with his pheromones, as if you were his property. Other times, he just wants to groom you or use you as a scratching post, but this is a good sign, as it indicates that he doesn’t consider us as a hostile rival.

Psychology of the cat

What’s a cat thinking? Cats’ thinking is due to different factors, although generally the most determining factors are their instinct, the interactions they make and especially the register of experiences.

It is important for you to know that all studies that try to decipher what a cat is thinking conclude that you should only interact with the cat when it asks you to, otherwise it will be stressed.

Do cats recognize their owners?
Although we don’t really like the term “owner”, the answer is yes! Cats are perfectly capable of recognizing their guardian. But how do cats recognize us?

As we said before, cats are very intelligent animals, and they are able to recognize and decipher very quickly the behaviors, habits and lifestyle of the humans in their home. In addition, and thanks to the famous pheromones, cats are able to recognize the scent of their guardian and mark it to communicate to other cats that this person “belongs” to them.

Emotional signs of the cat
Do cats love us? The cat and its behavior towards humans has been the subject of many studies, as we have seen in this article, for a very long time. “How do cats love us,” you may ask. The way cats express their feelings is very different from the way humans or other animals express their feelings. Cats have a very special character and it’s not always easy to understand what they want to communicate through their body language.

If your cat massages you with her paws, comes close to you and lifts her tail, purrs, brings her prey to you, or even bites you, among other signs, this may indicate that she loves you!

Cruelty to Animals: Psychology



Cruelty is a characteristic that is present in many human beings and may sometimes be reflected in the way some people treat their pets or the animals with which they have contact. Although it is a sad and frustrating fact, animal abuse is still very much in vogue in our society and we do not always realize the amount of violence that some animals experience daily.

When we think of animal abuse, we immediately imagine people hitting or yelling violently at their pets, without feeling or scruples, however… How exactly does a person who is cruel to animals behave? We will create a psychological profile of a person who is cruel to animals. In this way, you will be able to identify this type of person and thus prevent them from showing cruelty to animals.

Why do people mistreat animals? Characteristics of people who are cruel to animals

As a first step, it is necessary to define what animal abuse is. This phenomenon is characterized by being a deliberate act of cruelty, violence, or abandonment towards an animal, whether wild, companion or stray.

Although most of us openly condemn this type of activity, there are many ways in which animals are abused in our societies. One clear example of what societal animal torture is is the torture spectacle of bullfighting or the way animals are raised in pet stores. However, with the advances in our societies, we are increasingly leaving these practices behind.

What is it like to be an animal abuser? What does he or she think about when he or she hurts them? In the rest of this article Cruelty to Animals: Psychology, we will provide you with a psychological profile that will allow you to shed light on these practices.

The personality of a person who is cruel to animals
Many researchers have tried to discover personality traits that are characteristic of this type of person. However, there are cultural and geographic variables that influence the normalization of this type of behavior. But the main characteristics that are shared by these individuals are :

Aggressiveness: an aggressive person has a natural tendency to respond violently to stimuli around him, in this case, if he is angry or frustrated with an animal, he will not hesitate for a second to use violence against it.
Impulsivity: Acts of abuse and violence, whether perpetrated against an animal or another person, are directly related to poor control of our actions. Being impulsive means not thinking before acting, which implies getting angry without really thinking about whether the other person is suffering or not.
Low emotional intelligence: One of the most characteristic traits of emotional intelligence is empathy. This characteristic is defined as the ability to sense and identify the emotional states of others. If a person does not realize that they are harming an animal, they will have difficulty controlling their actions towards it.
Need for power: Violence is often used to maintain a situation of power. When an animal (often a pet) does not obey, a person who is cruel to animals will end up being violent towards it to show his superiority.
Selfishness: when a person thinks only of his interest, he may end up being violent for the sole purpose of getting something. For the same reason, a person who mistreats animals will tend to be selfish.
Provocative personality: Individuals who act against the law and feel a certain excitement by not respecting order may end up developing behaviors by which they will abuse animals. This behavior is because they ignore and constantly defy the well-being of those around them.
Now you know the typical psychological profile of people who abuse animals but… Is there a relationship between animal abuse and psychopathy?

Correlation between animal abuse and psychopathy

The psychological profile of a person who is cruel to animals may be closely related to mental illness. Psychological pathologies seriously affect our ability to feel, reason, and some personality disorders can induce animal abuse.

A psychopath is a person who has great difficulty understanding the suffering of others. If an act of violence towards another person allows him to obtain any benefit (for example, to let off steam from a bad day by hitting his pet) he will not hesitate to do so. It is for this reason that many psychopaths may end up abusing animals, however, it is necessary to emphasize that not all people who are cruel to animals are necessarily psychopaths.

Even though some mental disorders can turn into violent acts, animal abuse is a phenomenon that is influenced by many factors: social, emotional, environmental… For example, if in your family you were taught to hit your pet, it is more than likely that you will repeat this type of behavior later. It is important to be able to identify this phenomenon in your actions as well as in those of others. That way, it can be identified and corrected.

Finally, we would like to point out that it is especially important to be careful with children who abuse animals. Although it can be seen as a way of “exploring” or knowing the limits of animal tolerance, this behavior can also reveal an emerging form of abuse that serves as a kind of preparation for physical violence.

It is important for a child who abuses animals to go to a psychologist, as there is an infinite number of causes that can lead to this situation, such as the fact that the minor is being abused, and it is fundamental to identify these causes to avoid these aggressive behaviors that could end up damaging the lives of your pets.

What to do in a situation of animal abuse?
If you detect a situation of animal abuse in your environment, the first thing to do is: ensure the protection of the animal to prevent it from suffering further. You can also file a complaint with the authorities, call the SPA (Société Protectrice des Animaux) or ask the alleged person to give us the animal. Once the animal is rescued, a procedure or investigation of the person guilty of animal cruelty will have to be launched. The first step is to report the situation to the authorities so that a team of experts can take charge of regulating the situation.

This type of action or intervention will be based on the rehabilitation of the violent person and, above all, on the control of this type of behavior and aggression. We can approach the problem of animal abuse in two ways, both of them can also be combined to obtain a more effective process:

Punishment: Whether it is a fine or a prison sentence, an appropriate punishment for animal abuse is usually the first (and most obvious) option. There are laws designed to impose these punishments on animal abusers.
Psychological strategy: once the individual has been punished, we can continue the rehabilitation process to prevent him from behaving like this again, this strategy is based on developing his empathy and channeling his rage.
Say NO to animal abuse
As we have said at length and breadth in this article Cruelty to Animals: Psychology, animal abuse is everyone’s responsibility. This means that there is no single psychological trait that determines violent actions. Everyone can prevent and avoid violence to animals as much as possible.

If you wish to add your stone to the edifice, you will have to publicly denounce situations of abuse, avoid participating in events that exploit animals, and learn how to treat your furry, feathered and scaly companions.

Asexual reproduction in animals


Reproduction is essential for all living organisms and one of the three vital functions that living beings possess. Without reproduction, all species would be doomed to extinction, however, the presence of both the female and male sex is not necessarily necessary to complete the reproductive process. There is a reproductive strategy called asexual reproduction, which is indifferent, in almost all cases, to sex.

In this article Asexual Reproduction in Animals, we will talk about asexual animals and some of their characteristics, we will start by defining asexual reproduction and we will continue by illustrating this definition with various examples of animals that reproduce on their own.

Asexual reproduction in animals

Reproduction is essential for all living organisms and one of the three vital functions that living beings possess. Without reproduction, all species would be doomed to extinction, however, the presence of both the female and male sex is not necessarily necessary to complete the reproductive process. There is a reproductive strategy called asexual reproduction, which is indifferent, in almost all cases, to sex.

In this article Asexual Reproduction in Animals, we will talk about asexual animals and some of their characteristics, we will start by defining asexual reproduction and we will continue by illustrating this definition with various examples of animals that reproduce on their own.

What is asexual reproduction?

Asexual reproduction is a reproductive strategy, which is carried out by certain animals that reproduce alone and certain plants that do not require the presence of two adult individuals of different sexes to reproduce. This type of strategy occurs when an individual produces genetically identical offspring. Sometimes you may come across the term clonal reproduction, as it gives rise to individuals that are cloned to the progenitor.

Thus, during this type of reproduction, germ cells (ova or sperm) are not involved, with two exceptions, parthenogenesis and gynogenesis, which we will discuss in more detail below. Instead, they are somatic cells (those that makeup all the tissues of the body) or body structures.

Types of asexual reproduction and examples
There are many types and subtypes of asexual reproduction in animals, and if plants and bacteria are included, the list gets even longer. In the following, we will present the most studied asexual reproduction strategies in animals in the scientific world.

1. Vegetative multiplication :
Gemmulation is the typical asexual reproduction of sea sponges. It occurs when food particles accumulate in a specific cell type of sponges. These cells isolate themselves with covered protection creating what is called a gemmule, which will be expelled a posteriori, giving birth to a new sponge.

Another type of vegetative reproduction is germination. A group of cells on the surface of an animal begins to grow until it forms a new individual that can eventually separate or stay together and form a colony. This type of reproduction can be observed in hydrants.

Some animals can also reproduce by fragmentation. During this type of reproduction, an animal may separate and divide into one or more pieces, and each of these pieces develops into a completely new individual. The most glaring example of this type of reproduction is found in the life cycle of the starfish when the starfish loses an arm, in addition to being able to regenerate it, another individual, a clone of the original starfish, is formed.

2. Parthenogenesis:
As we said at the beginning, parthenogenesis requires an egg, but not sperm. The unfertilized egg can become a whole new organism. This type of asexual reproduction was first described in aphids, a type of insect.

3. Gynogenesis:
Gynogenesis is another type of single-parent reproduction. Egg cells need a stimulus to develop an embryo, a sperm, but the sperm does not provide any of its genomes. As far as the offspring are concerned, it will be a true clone of the mother. The sperm used does not necessarily have to be a member of the same species as the mother, but it must be a species close to that of the mother. This type of asexual reproduction occurs in amphibians and teleosts.

Asexual reproduction as a survival strategy

Animals do not use this breeding strategy as a usual method of reproduction, in fact, they only use it in difficult times, such as during changes in their environment, extreme temperatures, droughts, when there are no males, high depredation, etc…

Asexual reproduction reduces genetic variability, which can result in the disappearance of a colony, group, or population of animals if abrupt changes in the environment continue.

List of animals that follow asexual reproduction
Many organisms use asexual reproduction to perpetuate the species during times of crisis. In the following some examples are presented:

*Spongilla alba: it is a type of freshwater sponge native to the American continent that can reproduce by gemmulation when the temperature reaches -10ºC.
*Planaria torva: it belongs to the flatworm family. It lives in freshwater and is distributed throughout Europe. It reproduces by fragmentation. If it is cut into several pieces, each piece will produce a new individual.
*Ambystoma altamirani: This salamander, like the rest of the salamanders belonging to the genus Ambystoma, can reproduce by gynogenesis. They are native to Mexico.
*Ramphotyphlops braminus: this species of snake is native to Asia and Africa, although it has been introduced to other continents. It is a very small snake, less than 20 cm, which reproduces by parthenogenesis.
Hydra oligarchies: Hydras are a species of freshwater jellyfish that can reproduce by germination. They live in temperate zones of the northern hemisphere.

Cat Coronavirus – Symptoms and Treatment


Cat coronavirus is a disease that worries many families, which is why it is so important that you are properly informed about how it is transmitted, the symptoms experienced by the animal and the treatment to be applied in case of contagion.

The coronavirus, received its name for the shape of the small crown it has, its special characteristics make it a particularly dangerous virus, which is why you will have to be very careful and be very attentive if your cat has come into contact with infected animals. In this article Cat Coronavirus – Symptoms and Treatment, find out everything you need to know about cat coronavirus, its symptoms and the correct treatment in cases where your cat has caught feline coronavirus.

What is cat coronavirus?

It is a virus that presents small projections on its exterior, giving it the characteristic shape of a crown, to which it owes its name. Feline enteric coronavirus is a virus that is not very resistant in the surrounding environment, which makes it easily destructible by high temperatures and disinfectants.

This virus has a special predilection for the cells of the epithelium of the cat’s intestine, giving rise to mild and chronic gastroenteritis. The virus is expelled through the feces, the main source of contagion. One of the main characteristics of this virus is its ability to mutate, giving rise to another disease, known as feline infectious peritonitis. This is a typical disease of cats less than 1 year old or in elderly, weak, immunocompromised cats that live in groups.

Symptoms of cat coronavirus

Feline enteric coronavirus produces mild and/or chronic gastroenteritis, resulting in the following symptoms:

-Abdominal pain
Many cats are quite resistant to the disease, developing no symptoms, passing from being carriers and eliminating the viruses through the stool. Nevertheless, as we said, the danger of the coronavirus is its mutation, which gives rise to feline infectious peritonitis (FIP).

Symptoms of feline infectious peritonitis
Infectious peritonitis in cats is a disease produced by a mutation of the feline enteric coronavirus. It can manifest itself in two different ways, dry or without effusion (chronic) and wet or with effusion (acute).

Dry (chronic) infectious peritonitis – Symptoms
In the first, the virus can affect multiple organs, generating a wide variety of symptoms, such as :

-Weight loss
-Lack of appetite
-Accumulation of liquid

Infectious wet peritonitis (acute) – Symptoms
The wet form is characterized by the formation of fluids in the animal’s body cavities, such as the peritoneum and pleura (abdominal and thoracic cavity). Thus, its symptoms would be :

-Inflamed abdomen
-Lack of appetite
-Inflammation of lymphatic nodules
-Inflammation of the kidneys
In both forms, fever, lack of appetite and lethargy (the animal is not attentive to its surroundings and takes longer to react to stimulus) are observed in cats.

Life expectancy of a cat infected with feline coronavirus

The life expectancy of a cat with coronavirus will vary according to the severity of the disease, although both forms shorten the life of the animal considerably. Wet feline infectious peritonitis, which is the most severe form of coronavirus in cats, the disease can end the life of a cat between 5 and 7 weeks from the time the mutation occurs.

In the case of dry feline infectious peritonitis, a cat’s life expectancy increases to just under a year. This is why it is so important that you take your cat to the vet as soon as possible.

Transmission of the cat’s coronavirus
Suffering and overcoming the disease generates a certain immunity in cats that does not last very long, which means that the animal can re-infect itself, thus repeating the cycle. When a cat lives alone, the animal can contaminate itself, through its litter box, because, as we said, the coronavirus is transmitted through the animal’s stools.

In the case where several cats live together, the risk of contagion increases considerably, due to the fact that they all share the same litter box, passing the disease to each other.

Treatment for the cat’s coronavirus
Since it is a viral disease that has no treatment, one generally tries to focus on treating the symptoms while waiting for the cat’s immune response.

On the other hand, preventive treatments are recommended in order to avoid the spread of the disease. Vaccination is the first choice, as well as making several litter boxes available to your cats, which reduces the possibility of transmission between them.

If you wish to adopt a new cat, we recommend that you have it vaccinated.

Is the cat’s coronavirus transmissible to humans?

The cat coronavirus is not on the list of zoo noses, but… what is a zoonotic? A zoonotic is a disease that an animal can transmit to humans, don’t worry! The cat coronavirus is therefore not a disease that can be transmitted to humans, but it is nevertheless extremely contagious between animals, which is why you should take all the precautions described in our article.

This article is purely informative, we do not have the expertise to prescribe veterinary treatments nor to make any diagnosis. We invite you to take your pet to the veterinarian if it presents the symptoms of a fever or a disease.

Endangered Animals in Canada


“Across Canada, habitat degradation, invasive alien species, climate change, pollution, and overexploitation of resources have pushed more than 500 species to the brink of extinction. Everything from sea otters to leatherback turtles, from whooping cranes to wood bison are at risk” [wwf.ca]. These are the words of WWF Canada, an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961 and dedicated to protecting the environment.

In Canada, endangered or extinct animals are divided into four categories:

In this new article in PlanetAnimal, we will tell you all about endangered animals in Canada and the main factors responsible for this sad finding.

How are endangered species designated in Canada?
In 2002, the Government of Canada passed its first Act respecting the protection of wildlife species that are endangered or threatened, an Act they called the Species at Risk Act. Under this legislation, species at risk are designated by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). COSEWIC is funded by “Environment Canada” but operates at arm’s length from the government.

The Committee commissions studies on native species whose survival in Canada seems very complicated, if not impossible. Based on the results of these studies, it designates them as belonging to one or more categories:

*Extinct from the country
Today in Canada, schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act lists all of the country’s threatened species. Any species on this list benefits from a safeguard strategy established by a team of experts. There are a total of 521 animal and plant species on this list. Here are the results by category:

-Extinct from the country: about 30 species, 13 of which have disappeared from the face of the earth.
-Endangered: the Vancouver marmot, the North Atlantic right whale, and more than 200 other species.
-Threatened: 127 species are concerned, including beluga whales and several species of caribou.
-Concerned: 93 animal species are concerned.

In the remainder of this article on endangered animals in Canada, we will present a non-exhaustive list of animals concerned for each category. Here we go.

Black-footed ferret
Status: Endangered

The appearance of the black-footed ferret
Of the three ferret species in the world, the black-footed ferret (Mustela grinipes) is the only ferret native to North America. Black-footed ferrets are super cute: cat-like whiskers that surround their white snout, two ears above the eyes that give the impression of wearing a bandit mask.

Their champagne-colored fur blends completely into the landscape of the tall grass-filled prairies and makes them impossible to detect when they are motionless, protecting them from predators like coyotes or foxes.

They measure between 28 and 50 cm and their tail length is 11 to 15 cm, males weigh between 950 grams and 1100 grams while females weigh between 750 and 900 grams.

Before they were considered virtually extinct, black-footed ferrets inhabited the temperate, tall-grass-covered territories of the Canadian Prairies and Great Plains ecozone. Historically, their range extended from northern Mexico to the southern prairies of Alberta, Canada, but as soon as settlers from Europe began to exterminate prairie dogs, their main source of food because they interfered with farmland, black-footed ferrets began to disappear. In the 19th century, the black-footed ferret was considered to be completely extinct, it was not until 1981 that researchers were contradicted when a farmer’s dog, returning from hunting, brought a black-footed ferret to its master’s feet. Researchers eventually located a small population of black-footed ferrets in Wyoming, USA, which they used to begin a captive breeding program to reintroduce them to the wild in North America, including Canada.

Recently, in 2009, researchers from the Toronto Zoo, Parks Canada, USFWS, and other partners released 34 black-footed ferrets into Grasslands National Park in Saskatchewan (a Canadian province bordering the US). Nevertheless, they are not safe and are not numerous enough, which is why they remain in the “endangered” category.

image: www.hww.ca

La Tourte voyageuse
Status: missing

The passenger pigeon or passenger dove is a species of bird that is now extinct. The passenger pigeon was found throughout North America, especially in Canada. There were billions of them.

The species was wiped out in only a few decades, mainly by farmers who considered it harmful to crops. Another species are extinct because of man…

Apparently, according to the zoologist Albert Hazen Wright in 1914, the very last passenger dove died at the Cincinnati Zoo in Cincinnati, Ohio (USA) on September 1st of the same year.

Sea Otter
Species Status: Special Concern

The appearance of the sea otter
Sea otters are the heaviest of all otters and the only ones that are physically adapted to permanent marine life. With their long bodies, sea otters are adapted to live at sea, from temperate (California) to cold (Alaska) seas. They are therefore among the animals found in Baja California. Its fur varies from reddish-brown to black, it is particularly thick and dense and insulates the animal while maintaining a layer of air under its hair. Their two upper canines are very powerful, significantly larger than the other teeth. Sea otters can live up to 23 years in the wild, with an average life expectancy of 15-20 years.

The sea otter was highly exploited on the Pacific coast by hunters who sold up to 1200 skins per year in the late 1700s and during the 19th century. By 1900, the sea otter was already on the verge of extinction. In 1911, an international treaty ensured its protection and by the late 1960s, the Alaskan population numbered about 30,000 individuals. A few successful introductions were made on the west coast of Vancouver Island between 1969 and 1972. The sea otter population in British Columbia today numbers in the thousands. The sea otter is no longer completely endangered, but it has been listed as threatened and of special concern since 2007.

Peregrine Falcon
Status: Ranked threatened to special concern

Peregrine Falcon Appearance
The peregrine falcon is a hardy, medium-sized raptor species and is reputed to be the fastest bird of prey in the world in a swoop. Its prey is almost exclusively birds, but some specimens can prey on small land animals. This bird never builds nests and lives mainly on cliffs, rarely on trees.

Several peregrine falcon populations have been decimated by organochlorine chemicals such as DDT and PCBs, which cause various problems, such as reducing the amount of calcium in eggshells. The eggshells eventually break under the weight of the incubating adult. Organochlorine products, as well as other man-made influences, have caused a decline in peregrine falcon populations across Canada. Nevertheless, since the production and sale of these products were banned in the 1970s, populations of this species have been increasing. As a result, the peregrine falcon went from “threatened” to “special concern” in 2002.

Leatherback Turtle
Status: endangered

The appearance of the leatherback turtle
Among the endangered animals in Canada is the leatherback turtle. The leatherback turtle is the largest of the 7 current species of sea turtles. It is the largest turtle in general and the 4th largest reptile after three crocodilians. It does not have keratinized scales on its carapace but the skin on dermal bones. It can reach 680kg and individuals of this species are accustomed to breed on sandy beaches in tropical waters or Canadian waters during the summer.

Leatherback turtles are generally found in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the south coast of Greenland and as far north and south of Alaska on the west coast. Leatherbacks are endangered in Canada. Most leatherbacks are killed in tropical waters where the local population collects eggs for human consumption and the adults are killed for their meat. The world population of the leatherback turtle is endangered and is in great danger. Conservation of this species requires strong protection in Canada, as well as globally through international cooperation.

The domestic cat and its character


A cat’s behavior includes the way it acts and the habits it adopts in its daily life, as well as the language it uses to communicate and interact with individuals and the stimuli in their environment: the domestic cat and its character are defined throughout its life. Although we can approach a logical definition of feline behavior, we still have much to discover about the nature of cats and their forms of expression.

The domestic cat and its character

A domestic cat’s behavior and temperament can vary considerably, depending on several factors. We will tell you a little more about them:

-Genetics: the character of cats is closely related to their genetic make-up, up to 30%, which includes the characteristics of the breed and the parents. Thus, when felines have a scary character, it is very likely that they will pass it on to their children. Moreover, for example, the character of the European Cat will be different from the character of red cats.
-Socialization: The socialization of kittens directly influences the character of the adult domestic cat. This period, which ranges from two weeks to seven weeks, is considered a “sensitive stage” because this is when the recognition of “friendly species” takes place. Therefore, when socializing kittens, we need to ensure that they interact positively with all kinds of people, animals, and environments, without producing stress in the domestic cat.
-Learning: education and the environment in which it has developed provides the domestic cat with an experience that will have a direct impact on their behavior. While genetics and socialization play a very important role, learning is essential in cats, which are domestic animals with very high cognitive abilities.

Thus, each domestic cat can show a unique character, even when talking about siblings that have grown up together and have had similar experiences. Although some behaviors are species-specific, the three factors we have detailed above are those that will directly influence a cat’s character and behavior. This is why the task of training a cat, since it is small, is so important.

The behavior of the domestic cat

A cat’s behavior varies mainly according to its age, whether the domestic cat is a kitten, an adult cat, or a cat at the end of its life. Thus, we can observe that kittens are much more playful and curious, while older cats tend to show a calmer behavior throughout the day.

Next, we’ll talk a little bit about what to expect about the cat’s behavior at each stage of its life :

Kitten behavior
Kittens are not born with a definite trait, although, as mentioned, there are personality traits that will be associated with the behavior of the species or genetics.

After birth, kittens are entirely dependent on their mother until 9 or 15 days of age, when they begin to move. This is also when their socialization period begins. For this reason, in this stage, it will be essential to socialize the kittens positively.

We will let them interact with people, animals, and elements of the environment so that they can become familiar with them and thus avoid the appearance of fears or other undesirable behaviors. All of this will lead to balanced behavior in adulthood.

From 4 or 5 weeks of age, the socialization period begins to end at the same time as the gradual weaning, and we will start to observe new behaviors in the kittens. Living with their mother and siblings will allow them to learn the language and communication of cats, the basis of their social behavior. The domestic cat and its character are then formed at this time.

We will observe that they begin to eat small amounts of food by themselves, use the litter box and bury their feces, the appearance of grooming themselves and other individuals, social play with their peers, predatory behavior, and social behavior in general.

At this time, it will be essential to use positive reinforcement for our house cat (treats, kind words, or petting) to encourage the cats to show behaviors that we consider positive, such as using the scratching post, being handled, or sleeping in bed. We must agree with all family members on the behaviors to reinforce, this way we will get better results.

Later, from 7 weeks of life until puberty, domestic cats begin their juvenile period, which is characterized by the appearance of sexual behaviors. At this time it will be fundamental to go to your veterinarian to inform you about the benefits of castrating cats, for the prevention of certain types of cancer or marking with urine at home.

The behavior of the adult domestic cat
The adult domestic cat’s behavior and character will be greatly influenced by the transition, socialization, and youth stages, although they will continue to learn throughout their lives.

If you have ensured positive experiences for your domestic cat, the most likely thing is that your cat will behave normally and in a balanced way, although this may be slightly influenced by breed or genetics. However, there is no such thing as predictable behavior in adult domestic cats, on the contrary, each cat will be able to develop its character and temperament.

Despite this, in general, we can observe that adult cats are territorial animals, which cling firmly to their routine as a means of preserving their well-being. Sudden changes often lead to stress in cats, which affects not only their behavior but also their health.

At this stage, it will be essential to continue to stimulate the cats’ play and social behavior through daily activities and affection. We will avoid boredom and sedentary routines, focusing on environmental enrichment, which is essential for the management of stable behavior and ideal weight in cats.

If you observe changes in your domestic cat’s character, you will urgently go to a veterinarian, because you should know that these animals usually hide the pain, anxiety, and other problems very well until they are already in an advanced state. Regular veterinary visits, every six or twelve months, will be essential to ensure their good physical and mental health, as well as to detect any abnormalities earlier before they get worse.

From 10 to 12 years of age, we will observe the appearance of the first symptoms of old age in cats, both physical and behavioral. At this stage, the domestic cat spends more time resting, requires more care and affection, is not as active, and may begin to develop health problems. It will be essential to continue to encourage play and daily routines, even for a shorter period.

The domestic cat and its character with humans

Finally, let’s talk a little bit about the behavior of the domestic cat and its character with human beings, especially the relationship they have with their guardians.

Cats’ survival instincts lead them to cling to a routine and defend their territory, but also greatly influence their relationship with people. In general, it is quite normal for cats not to immediately approach a stranger, although there are of course some very sociable house cats that enjoy contact with people.

Cats tend to avoid people they don’t know, those who are particularly noisy or those who want to catch them. If your domestic cat can’t run away and feels trapped, she may meow or scratch. If they are ignored, they may even attack.

Therefore, if you are trying to rescue or help abandoned cats it will be important to be very patient and try to gain the feline’s trust to approach.

But if we talk about the relationship between cats and their guardian, we assume that it is a relationship based on affection and trust. Of course, cats cannot be expected to act like dogs, because they are a different species.

At the same time, felines tend to be more independent animals that often opt for a more solitary lifestyle in their natural state: the domestic cat has a rather solitary and independent character.

Therefore, although cats understand that we provide optimal conditions for their development and give them affection, cats do not see us as referents, as dogs do, but as members of their community (or family, to put it in more “human” terms).

Thus, the way they show affection to their guardians will be very similar to the way they express their appreciation for other cats. To find out more about showing affection in the feline world, at PlanèteAnimal we show you 10 signs that your cat loves you.

Behaviour of the domestic cat in heat
Finally, we need to talk about the behavior of cats in heat, the domestic cat, and its character during the heat period. It is important to know that sexual behavior is totally instinctive and that it causes changes in their organism and behavior. Influenced by the hours of light, the weather and other individuals, zeal in cats cause certain behaviors, such as :

Although there are certain contraceptive methods for cats that avoid the appearance of these symptoms, such as heat injection, we must be aware that they also have serious health side effects. The only effective way to prevent them completely is castration. Consult your veterinarian for more information.

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